Yudong Song, Luke Bugada, Ruiting Li, Hongxiang Hu, Luchen Zhang, Chengyi Li, Hebao Yuan, Krishani Kumari Rajanayake, Nathan A. Truchan, Fei Wen, Wei Gao*, Duxin Sun*
* Corresponding author


Science Translational Medicine 2022
Publication Date: May 4, 2022
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abl3649


Immunomodulators that remodel the tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment have been combined with anti–programmed death 1 (α-PD1) or anti–programmed death ligand 1 (α-PDL1) immunotherapy but have shown limited success in clinical trials. However, therapeutic strategies to modulate the immunosuppressive microenvironment of lymph nodes have been largely overlooked. Here, we designed an albumin nanoparticle, Nano-PI, containing the immunomodulators PI3Kγ inhibitor (IPI-549) and paclitaxel (PTX). We treated two breast cancer mouse models with Nano-PI in combination with α-PD1, which remodeled the tumor microenvironment in both lymph nodes and tumors. This combination achieved long-term tumor remission in mouse models and eliminated lung metastases. PTX combined with IPI-549 enabled the formation of a stable nanoparticle and enhanced the repolarization of M2 to M1 macrophages. Nano-PI not only enhanced the delivery of both immunomodulators to lymph nodes and tumors but also improved the drug accumulation in the macrophages of these two tissues. Immune cell profiling revealed that the combination of Nano-PI with α-PD1 remodeled the immune microenvironment by polarizing M2 to M1 macrophages, increasing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells, decreasing regulatory T cells, and preventing T cell exhaustion. Our data suggest that Nano-PI in combination with α-PD1 modulates the immune microenvironment in both lymph nodes and tumors to achieve long-term remission in mice with metastatic breast cancer, and represents a promising candidate for future clinical trials.


Read the full paper in Science Translational Medicine.